Domain Name System (DNS)
Domain Name System is a computer server that contains database of public IP addresses and thier respected hostnames and also sometimes respected to resolve, or translate those common names to IP addresses as requested. DSN servers is basically run special software and communicate with each other with the help of special protocols.
What is a Domain? - A web domain is the name given to identify a website. A domain is basically what you have enter into a web browser to visit a website. Domain name can be registered through various web hosting/domain provider with a different prices range. Once the particular domain name is used/registed, then it cannot be repeatedly used by any other user unless the existing registed domain name get expired, then only it is available on the list. Domain name can be registered with different extentions such as .com, .net, .org, and so on.
Domain name system is nothing but the phone book for the internet. It is essentially a database of IP addresses. Each IP address is a series of numbers that allow computer to communicate with each other. A website is identified on the server by their specific IP address. Instead of remember an IP address and type into the browser, we can use a specific domain name.
In short, DNS acts as a central part of the internet that matches the name (Domain name) to their respected number (IP address). Anything that connects to the internet has an Internet Protocols (IP) address made up of numbers.
How DNS works?
When you type the domain name into the browser, your browser sends a query over the Internet to find the given website whether it is available or not. A query is a process or step the match the domain name with respective Internet Protocols IP address. In the first stage, your query interacts with the recursive resolver, which is operated by an Internet Service Provider (ISP). Then, the recursive resolver interacts with the Root Server. Root Servers are running all over the world and each one knows DNS information about Top Level Domain (TLD) such as .com.
Each Top Level Domain (TLD), DNS name server stores the address information for second level domains within the top level domain (.com). Therefore, when your query reaches the TLD server, the TLD server respond with the IP address of the domains name server. Next, the recursive resolver sends the query to the domains name server. This DNS server knows the IP address for the full domain (domain name with the extension). Now that recursive resolver knows the IP address for the domain name in your query, it tells the browser what the IP address is. Finally, the browser get the signal to retrieve the websites content, using the IP address it just received.
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