File Transfer Protocols (FTP)
File Transfer Protocols it is basically used protocols to transfer/exchange files over the internet. FTP uses the internet's TCP/IP protocols to enable data transfer and also uses a client-server architecture, often secured with SSL/TLS (Secure Socket Layer/Transport Socket Layer). FTP promotes sharing of files through remote computers with reliable and efficient data transfer. FTP clients will connect to the FTP sever on port 21. This connection is called the Control Connection or Command Connection.
The files are transferred between two computers using the FTP software. The files can be transferred by the user providing an authentication details like host name, username and password. This way of transferring files from the server to the user's computer and vice-versa is faster way of transferring files over the internet.
FTP/S (File Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layers) - While transferring process by FTP is not that secure, FTP/S is introduced as the extention to serve this purpose. FTP over SSL (commonly know FTP/S) allows the encryption process on both the Control and Data Connections either concurrently or independently. Hence, if the client connects to the FTP/S server, then it means the client intends to perform SSL. Therefore, SSL handshake takes place immediately. The client is allowed to activate greater security when neccessary or speed the process up on less security level file-transfer.
SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) - is a relatively new protocol adopted that allows the transfer of files and data over a connection that previously has been secured using the Secure Shell Protocol (SSH). This is quite similar to FTP/S as the security basis. Unlike FTP, SFTP protocols is packet-based instead of text-based. The normal FTP might send a command like DELE test.txt whereas, SFTP sends a binary 0x23 and then "test.txt". Hence, sending less data, the SFTP is comparatively faster over the long-term as data is crossing the wire.
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